Interpersonal communication is your ___1___ interaction with others. Talking to a friend on campus, chatting to a friend on campus, chatting on the phone with a classmate about an ___2___ test, arguing the ___3___ of a movie with friends, discussing strategies for accomplishing tasks at work, ___4___ for a job, and planning the future ___5___ a loved one are all forms of interpersonal communication.
Effective interpersonal communication ___6___ our sensitivity to others and to the situation. One goal of effective interpersonal communication is to maintain relationships, and forming ___7___ messages that accurately convey our ideas and feelings ___8___ not offending the other person is key ___9___ our success.
Effective interpersonal communication ___10___ us. People who can clearly express their ideas, beliefs, and opinions become influential and ___11___ control over what happens to them and to others that they ___12___. When we accurately and precisely ___13___ our thoughts, others gain a better ___14___ for our position. Their understanding and appreciation make it more likely that they will respond in ___15___ that are consistent with our needs.
Effective interpersonal communication helps us manage the ___16___ we create. Presenting ourselves in such a way that others will___17___ and trust us is important in both public and private ___18___—whether we’re communicating in a professional setting, ___19___ our interpersonal skills are vital to getting a job, holding a position, or rising in an organization, or in a private setting where we’re trying to ___20___ and maintain relationships.
The importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist is reflected in several books that have been written on the topic. Most of these books, as well as several chapters, mainly in, but not limited to, journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts, stress the “how to” aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview, its context, and implications. Much of the “how to” material is based on personal experiences and general impressions. As we know, in journalism as in other fields, much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice. Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.
There is, as has been suggested, a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting, but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview itself. On the other hand, many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written. Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Unhappily, this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview. The fact that the general literature on interviewing does not deal with the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons. First, it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar, at least in a positive manner, with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clinical interview, such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists. In these situations the professional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help. Another familiar situation is the job interview. However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media, particularly by television. And yet, we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers, listeners, and viewers. Even so, true understanding of the journalistic interview, especially television interviews, requires thoughtful analyses and even study, as this book indicates.
The main idea of the first paragraph is that ________.
Much research has been done on interviews in general ________.
Westerners are familiar with the journalistic interview, ________.
The word “empirical”(Para.2) most probably means
The text is most likely a part of a ________.
The future of space exploration depends on many things. It depends on how technology evolves, how political forces shape competition and partnerships between nations, and how important the public feels space exploration is. The near future will see the continuation of human space flight in Earth's orbit and unpiloted space flight within the solar system. Piloted space flight to other planets, or even back to the moon, still seems far away. Any flight to other solar systems is even more distant, but a huge advance in space technology could drive space exploration into realms currently explored only by science fiction.
The 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey depicted commercial shuttles flying to and from a giant wheel-shaped space station in orbit around Earth, bases on the moon, and a piloted mission to Jupiter. The real space activities of 2001 will not match this cinematic vision, but the century will see a continuation of efforts to transform humanity into a space faring species.
Perhaps the most difficult problem space planners face is how to finance a vigorous program of piloted space exploration in Earth’s orbit and beyond. In 1998 no single government or international enterprise had plans to send people back to the moon, much less to Mars. Such missions are unlikely to happen until the perceived value exceeds their cost.
One belief shared by a number of space exploration experts is that future lunar and Martian expeditions should be aimed at creating permanent settlements. The residents of such outposts would have to "live off the land," obtaining such necessities as oxygen and water from the harsh environment. On the moon, pioneers could obtain oxygen by heating lunar soil. In 1998 the Lunar Prospector discovered evidence of significant deposits of ice, a valuable resource for settlers, mixed with soil at the lunar poles. On Mars, oxygen could be extracted from the atmosphere and water could come from buried deposits of ice.
The future of piloted lunar and planetary exploration remains largely unknown. Most space exploration scientists believe that people will be on the moon and Mars by the middle of the century, but how they get there, and the nature of their visits, is a subject of continuing debate. Clearly, key advances will need to be made in lowering the cost of getting people off Earth, the first step in any human voyage to other worlds.
Space exploration experts have long hoped that as international tensions have eased, an increasing number of space activities could be undertaken on an international, cooperative basis. In addition to the economic savings that could result from nations pooling their resources to explore space, the new perspective gained by space voyages could be an important benefit to international relations. The Apollo astronauts have said the greatest discovery from our voyages to the Moon was the view of their own world as a precious island of life in the void. Ultimately that awareness could help to improve our lives on Earth.
A flight to other solar systems will be made more possible by _________
It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that human society will become increasingly _________
It is difficult to send people to other planets because of _________
According to this text, piloted space missions will need to be _________
It is predicted that people who will live on other planets would have to _________
Big Western oil firms were reporting their results for the third quarter as the oil price climbed towards $100 a barrel during the past few weeks. Record oil prices, it turns out, do not translate into record profits. Oil is now close to exceeding the record set in 1979 of between $100 and $110, depending on how you adjust for inflation and what criterion you use. Yet almost without exception, big oil firms' profits are falling from the peaks reached last year.
Exxon Mobil, for example, reported a 10% drop in profits in the third quarter, and BP's fell even more sharply. Profits also fell at Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Eni. They rose at Total and Royal Dutch Shell—but only thanks to exchange-rate fluctuations and one-off asset sales. Analysts at Citigroup calculate that, measured in dollars, the biggest oil firms' earnings fell by 15% on average.
To be fair, the oil price has surged most dramatically since the end of September, although it was also buoyant in the third quarter. The majors' poor showing also reflects lower profits from refining, as the difference in price between petrol and crude oil has fallen from the exceptionally high levels of recent months.
But the fact remains that oil giants are struggling to pump more oil and gas. In part, this is due to a quirk of the rules that oblige Western oil firms to share the crude they produce with state-owned oil firms in many countries. The contracts in question often rule that as the price goes up, the volume of oil the foreigners receive decreases. Worse, several countries are changing contracts or tax rules in ways that will further erode the Western oil firms' profits—and in some cases are throwing them out altogether.
Rising costs are also a problem. Exxon, which is known for its strict financial discipline, saw costs rise almost twice as fast as revenue in the third quarter. The shortage of labor and equipment that is feeding this inflation is also causing delays to new projects. And there are not enough new projects in the pipeline. The International Energy Agency reckons that the expansion plans of the big Western and state-owned oil firms will leave the world 12.5m barrels per day short of requirements in 2015.
Despite this looming deficit and the glaring price signal, all the big companies except Total produced less oil and gas in the third quarter than they did in the same period last year. According to Citigroup, the average decline in overall output was 3.3%. If the relatively steady supply of natural gas is stripped out, the numbers look even worse: oil production fell by 9% on average. No matter how high the price goes, the oil majors cannot make a profit from oil they do not produce.
We can learn from the first paragraph that _______
Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the situation of the third quarter?
“This inflation” (Paragraph 5) refers to_____
The example of Citigroup is mentioned to ______
Record oil prices do not translate into record profits because of the following reasons except_____
Dreams are said to be the window to the mind. Through the study of dreams, we can catch glimpses into what our subconscious minds are thinking, or what is troubling us at our deepest levels. No all dreams are the same, however, either in content or in meaning. In this respect, the study of bad dreams, nightmares, can yield interesting observations in regard to the mind and status of the dreamer. Indeed, nightmares appear to have been the subject of far more studies than more pleasant dreams, if for no other reason than while pleasant dreams are easily forgotten upon awakening, nightmares tend to linger in our minds is sufficient to demand attention.
The sources of our dreams are most commonly attributed to factors in our waking lives. Whether it be emotional challenges, stress in the workplace, relationship problems or a myriad of other possible factors, the thoughts and feelings created in our waking environments are believed to directly influence the content of our dreams. A particular dramatic or traumatic experience during the day would no doubt be encountered again in some form or another during the night.
Just as important as actual events in the determination of the content of our dreams are the pre-existing beliefs that we hold. If we encounter some kind of phenomena in our dreams, it is very likely that we already believed in the possibility of the phenomena before the dream. For example, if someone dreams of being abducted by aliens, it’s very likely that, before the dream, he already believed in the existence of aliens. To the extent that dreams are direct reflections of our minds, they will reflect accurately what we believe and hold to be true.
The way that we act in dreams bears consideration as well. Often times, our behavior in our dreams reflects hidden desires for that type of behavior in our waking lives. Someone who dreams of revenge may actually desire revenge in real life, and likewise someone who dreams of adventure night after night may be experiencing his mind playing out a desire for more excitement in his everyday life.
While the items encountered in our dreams are of great importance in the analysis of dreams, it must be recognized and understood that the same item in two different dreams can easily have entirely different meanings for the two dreamers. For example, a horse in the dreams of an avid equestrian can signify comfort and relaxation, whereas the same horse in the dreams of a hunter can represent excitement and challenge.
Nightmares are mentioned in paragraph one in order to ______
Based on the information provided in paragraph three, if a man dreamed of being hit by a train, it is likely that he _______
The last sentence of the text gives an example of horses encountered in dreams of two different people in order to ______
The main point of the text is that _______
Which of the following would the author most likely agree with?
Directions:You are going to read a text about the tasks of leaders and the skills required for leadership.Choose the most suitable heading from the list  － for each numbered paragraphs(1－5). The first and the last paragraph of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.
 Handling rights based disputes
 The role of dependence in disputes
Methods of settling conflicting interests
The use of negotiation for different dispute types
 Advantages of negotiation over mediation
 The role of power in settling disagreements
 Disagreement of interests
The Nature of Disputes
To resolve a dispute means to turn opposing positions into a single outcome. The two parties may choose to focus their attention on one or more of three basic factors. They may seek to(1) reconcile their interests,(2) determine who is right, and/or(3) determine who is more powerful.
Interests are needs, desires, concerns, fears一the things one cares about or wants. They provide the foundation for a person's or an organization's position in a dispute. In a dispute, not only do the interests of one party not coincide with those of the other party, but they are in conflict. For example, the director of sales for an electronics company gets into a dispute with the director of manufacturing over the number of TV models to produce. The director of sales wants to produce more models because her interest is in selling TV sets; more models mean more choice for consumers and hence increased sales. The director of manufacturing, however, wants to produce fewer models. His interest is in decreasing manufacturing costs and more models mean higher costs.
Reconciling such interests is not easy. It involves probing for deeply rooted concerns, devising creative solutions, and making tradeoffs and compromises where interests are opposed. The most common procedure for doing this is negotiation, the act of communication intended to reach agreement. Another interests based procedure is mediation, in which a third party assists the disputants, the two sides in the dispute, in reaching agreement.
By no means do all negotiations (or mediations) focus on reconciling interests. Some negotiations focus on determining who is right, such as when two lawyers argue about whose case has the greater merit. Other negotiations focus on determining who is more powerful, such as when quarrelling neighbors or nations exchange threats and counter threats. Often negotiations involve a mix of all threesome attempts to satisfy interests, some discussion of rights, and some references to relative power.
It is often complicated to attempt to determine who is right in a dispute. Although it is usually straight forward where rights are formalized in law, other rights take the form of unwritten but socially accepted standards of behavior, such as reciprocity, precedent, equality, and seniority. There are often different ― and sometimes contradictory standards that apply to rights. Reaching agreement on rights, where the outcome will determine who gets what, can often be so difficult that the parties frequently turn to a third party to determine who is right. The most typical rights procedure, in which disputants present evidence and arguments to a neutral third party who has the power to make a decision that must be followed by both disputants. (In mediation, by contrast, the third party does not have the power to decide the dispute.) Public adjudication is provided by courts and administrative agencies. Private adjudication is provided by arbitrators.
A third way to resolve a dispute is on the basis of power. We define power, somewhat narrowly, as the ability to pressure someone to do something he would not otherwise do. Exercising power typically means imposing costs on the other side or threatening to do so. The exercise of power takes two common forms: acts of aggression, such as physical attack, and withholding the benefits that derive from a relationship, as when employees stop working in a strike.
In our culture, the sources of what we call a sense of "mastery"— feeling important and worth-while — and the sources of what we call a sense of "pleasure" — finding life enjoyable — are not always identical. Women often are told "You can’t have it all." Sometimes what the speaker really is saying is: "You chose a career, so you can’t expect to have closer relationships or a happy family life." or "You have a wonderful husband and children—What’s all this about wanting a career?"
Our study shows that, for women, well-being has two dimensions. One is mastery, which includes self-esteem, a sense of control over your life, and low levels of anxiety and depression. Mastery is closely related to the "doing" side of life, to work and activity. Pleasure is the other dimensions, and it is composed of happiness, satisfaction and optimism. It is tied more closely to the "feeling" side of life. The two are independent of each other. A woman could be high in mastery and low in pleasure, and vice versa.
Directions: A chemical plant should be responsible for the water pollution in a nearby river. Write a letter to the City Environment Protection Agency to
1) state the present situation,
2) suggest ways to deal with the problem and
3) express your sincere hope.
You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. Do not write the address.
Directions:Based on the following information, you're asked to write an essay in no less than 150 words. You should make your comment on the issue, and include your suggestions. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET 2
Changes in the Ownership of Houses in China